At its heart, Wifi is data over radio link. We use this same technology to communicate with ships and satellites. But different frequencies have different behaviours. Any band we choose to use will have benefits and drawbacks.
Many of the current crop of wireless routers can broadcast in both 2.4GHz and 5GHz radio bands.
2.4GHz has been in use for much longer by consumer networking equipment. Its effective range without any obstructions is 100 metres. In perfect conditions, it can achieve data transfer rates of 54 Mbps. Perfect conditions almost never occur, with the average down towards 25 Mbps, a little slow by current networking standards.
But 2.4GHz has many benefits. The longer the wavelength, the easier it penetrates solid objects. Cellular networks here in Canada use 850-2100MHz, far lower on the radio spectrum. Using these much lower bands, you can make a phone call while farther away from a tower, behind intervening buildings or inside your house. Your 2.4GHz wireless router will not reach you across town, but it has some distance.
Like every useful and awesome thing, it is soon discovered by many others. The current state of 2.4GHz is like a crowd of people in a parking lot, each with their own speaker blasting a different kind of music. The more wireless routers or access points near your own equipment, the harder it is for your laptop/tablet/phone to hear your own wireless network over the noise.
I live in an apartment building. Here is the 2.4GHz capture from my desk:
The readings on the left are signal strength. My own network is marked in blue. You can see several other access points broadcasting at similar strengths, including the Shaw access point mounted on the hallway ceiling.
This is one of the reasons other bands were opened up for Internet use and manufacturers began to build wireless equipment using 5GHz. While the range is shorter with 5GHz, the data transfer rates are much higher, with claims of 1.3 Gbps under perfect conditions. As previously noted, the 5GHz band doesn’t deal with interfering objects like walls so well. But in an home network where your laptop/tablet/phone isn’t far from the access point, this becomes less of an issue.
So which band should you be using to take your wireless network to the top level of performance? If your wireless router and devices are both capable of 5GHz and your environment supports its use (devices close to access points, not many obstructions), then 5GHz is a preferable choice to avoid the band clogging currently happening in 2.4GHz.
But if your network or environment can’t support use of the 5GHz band, all is not lost. In a future post on channels, we’ll look at how to tailor your 2.4GHz broadcast depending on what’s around you.